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Today's gospel is the beginning of what is often called the ‘Sermon on the Plain’. We find a parallel to this passage in Matthew 5 that is often called the ‘Sermon on the Mount’. As these titles suggest, there are differences and similarities between these gospel readings. When spoken from the mountaintop in Matthew's Gospel, we can't miss the impression that Jesus is speaking with the authority and voice of God; the mountaintop is a symbol of closeness to God. Those who ascend the mountain see God and speak for God; recall the story of Moses and the Ten Commandments.
As Luke introduces the location of Jesus' teaching, Jesus teaches on level ground, alongside the disciples and the crowd. Luke presents Jesus' authority in a different light. He is God among us.
Another distinction found in Luke's version is the audience. Luke's ‘Sermon on the Plain’ is addressed to Jesus' disciples, although in the presence of the crowd; Matthew's Sermon on the Mount is addressed to the crowd. In keeping with this style, the Beatitudes in Luke's Gospel sound more personal than those in Matthew's Gospel—Luke uses the article “you” whereas Matthew uses “they” or “those.” There is also a difference in number: Matthew describes eight beatitudes; Luke presents just four, each of which has a parallel warning.
The form of the Beatitudes found in Luke's and Matthew's Gospel is not unique to Jesus. Beatitudes are found in the Old Testament, such as in the Psalms and in Wisdom literature. They are a way to teach about who will find favour with God. The word blessed in this context might be translated as “happy,” “fortunate,” or “favoured.”
As we listen to this Gospel, the Beatitudes jar our sensibilities. Those who are poor, hungry, weeping, or persecuted are called blessed. This is, indeed, a Gospel of reversals. Those often thought to have been forgotten by God are called blessed. In the list of “woes,” those whom we might ordinarily describe as blessed by God are warned about their peril. Riches, possessions, laughter, reputation . . . these are not things that we can depend upon as sources of eternal happiness. They not only fail to deliver on their promise; our misplaced trust in them will lead to our downfall. The ultimate peril is in misidentifying the source of true and eternal happiness.
The Beatitudes are often described as a framework for Christian living. Our vocation as Christians is not to be first in this world, but rather to be first in the eyes of God. We are challenged to examine our present situation in the context of our ultimate horizon, the Kingdom of God.
Wishing you every blessing,